Wrist tendinitis is a condition that most commonly occurs in individuals who perform repetitive activities using the hand and arm. These include computer users, factory workers, and athletes who throw and catch balls and play racquet sports. In the United States, the incidence of tendinitis as an occupational injury in people who work full time is 1.1 per 100,000. Overuse tendinitis is responsible for 25% to 50% of all sports injuries in the United States. Older individuals are often more at risk for wrist tendinitis due to a loss of elasticity in the wrist tendons. Physical therapists help people with wrist tendinitis reduce their pain, increase their wrist flexibility and strength, and return to their previous functional activities and sports.
What is Wrist Tendinitis?
Wrist tendinitis is a condition where 1 or more tendons in the wrist become inflamed and irritated. There are several tendons in the wrist that connect the muscles of the forearm and hand to the bones of the wrist and hand. These tendons are the small rope-like structures that you can see connecting to the fingers on the back of your hand. There are a number of conditions that can affect the tendons in this area.
- Wrist tendinitis applies to the early stages of tendon inflammation and irritation.
- Tendinopathy is the name given to the condition when it persists over time, is not treated, and becomes chronic.
- Tenosynovitis is the term given to an irritation that develops when the synovial sheath (through which some of these tendons glide) thickens and restricts the tendon.
- De Quervain’s Tendinitis applies to tendinitis that develops on the thumb side of the wrist.
How Does It Feel?
Several tendons in the wrist can become irritated with wrist tendinitis. Pain symptoms associated with the condition include:
- Pain where the arm meets the hand, which can radiate up into the elbow.
- Pain on the thumb side of the wrist (radial) or the little-finger side of the wrist (ulnar).
- Pain that only occurs when the wrist is under strain, which can become constant pain when left untreated.
- Pain when putting pressure on the hand, such as using the arms to push yourself up out of a chair to stand.
Besides pain, other symptoms include:
- Stiffness of the wrist, and a decreased ability to bend and extend the wrist.
- Inflammation or swelling in the wrist area.
- Tenderness to touch in the wrist and/or forearm muscles.
How Is It Diagnosed?
Your physical therapist will conduct a thorough evaluation of your entire arm to include the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. The therapist will ask you to describe the types of activities you normally perform using your arm at home, at work, and for recreation, and which of these activities causes pain or stiffness in the area. You will be asked how long the pain has been occurring and how it is affecting your regular activities of daily living. Your physical therapist will check your range of motion and strength in your entire upper arm. Your therapist will gently touch specific areas of your wrist and forearm to determine which wrist tendons are involved, and check for any swelling in the area.
How Can a Physical Therapist Help?
Physical therapy is a highly effective treatment for wrist tendinitis. You will work with your physical therapist to devise a treatment plan that is specific to your condition and goals. Your individual treatment program may include:
Pain Management. Your physical therapist will help you identify and avoid painful movements, and show you how to correct abnormal postures to reduce stress on the wrist. Your therapist may recommend resting the wrist short-term, and applying ice to the area to help alleviate pain. Your physical therapist also may apply a wrist brace to restrict wrist movement, allowing the tendons to heal.
Manual Therapy. Your physical therapist may use manual techniques, such as gentle joint movements, soft-tissue massage, and wrist stretches to get your wrist moving properly.
Range-of-Motion Exercises. You will learn exercises and stretches to reduce stiffness and help your wrist, hand, and forearm begin to move properly.
Strengthening Exercises. Your physical therapist will determine which strengthening exercises are right for you, depending on your specific areas of weakness. The entire arm, including the shoulder, elbow, and wrist, can potentially be weakened and contribute to the movement dysfunction that causes tendinitis. Your physical therapist will design an individualized home-exercise program to meet your specific needs and goals, which you can continue long after you have completed your formal physical therapy.
Patient Education. Depending on the specific activities you plan on resuming, your physical therapist will teach you ways to perform actions, while protecting your wrist and hand. For example, keeping the wrist in a neutral position to reduce excessive force while performing repetitive tasks, and taking frequent breaks are ways to decrease your chances of reinjury.
Functional Training. As your symptoms improve, your physical therapist will teach you how to correctly perform functional movement patterns using proper wrist mechanics, such as typing on a computer or swinging a racquet. This training will help you return to pain-free function on the job, at home, and when playing sports.
Can This Injury or Condition Be Prevented?
To prevent wrist tendinitis, physical therapists recommend that you:
- Avoid repetitive wrist and hand movements.
- Warm up the muscles around the wrist and hand before starting an activity.
- Perform regular stretches to maintain flexibility in the wrist and forearm before and after exercise or activity.
- Perform regular upper-body strengthening exercises to enable the wrist and hand to tolerate sports and other activities of daily living, with less stress to the joint.
- Follow joint protection techniques when using the wrist, such as balancing rest with work, and using the larger muscles of the arm for heavier tasks.
- Do not continue an activity that is painful or uncomfortable to the wrist and hand.